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FLLTR Journal: contents and abstracts

N° 35 - Travels, journeys and pathways (2020)

How staying abroad can become a moment of experiential and linguistic self-learning (Jaime ABAD MONTESINOS)

How does travelling contribute to the journey toward the acquisition of a foreign language? The aim of this article is to suggest the beginning of an answer and to present stays abroad as a major opportunity for language and existential self-learning based on interactions and life experiences. Starting from a series of semi-structured interviews of people who have stayed for some time in a foreign country, we aim to show the communicative strategies employed by learners in situations of exolingual communication, as well as to reflect on the moments of self-learning that can occur abroad.

Key-words: trip; international stay; self-learning; interaction; experience.

Mapping mobility: a training and research activity (Séverine BEHRA, Maud CIEKANSKI, Guillaume NASSAU & Dominique MACAIRE)

Within the framework of an interdisciplinary pre-service training in innovation and educational mediation for Hong Kong students in France, the activity of producing mind maps in groups can help with tracing the transcultural competence, which is part of a mobility competence. This article first presents the theoretical framework of the MIFPE research project and the implementation of the formative activity. It then highlights the main results: alternative tools such as mind maps, produced in the form of collaborative tasks, encourage commitment and awareness of the representations of individuals; they contribute to the development of a transnational mobility competence; visual accounts of a career path are accompanied by a feeling of belonging to a community, both inside and outside the group; mind maps reflect a collective career path subject to discussion and modification, and therefore fluid and contextual, which can be appropriated by the pre-professionalisation students on a personal as well as professional basis. Finally, it emerges that if experience is integrated into the training in a non-verbal way and through a “space and time” dedicated to emotions, it becomes an integral part of the targeted skill.

Keywords: mind maps; visual narratives; teacher education; transnational mobility.

Discovering transculturality at international conferences: early-career researchers’ experience of mobility (Laura DÉLÉANT, Marie DINCHER, Jérémy FILET, David GOCEL-CHALTÉ, Alexis OLRY de RANCOURT & Dominique MACAIRE

French PhD students share their experience in designing an international workshop on academic presentations. The seminar was devised as part of an International Summer School organized by an Education University in Asia and was aimed at doctoral students from various countries. By positioning themselves as multidisciplinary co-authors, French doctoral students demonstrate that an open research posture (bottom-up type) is more appropriate and more easily shared than a frontal training posture (top-down type). This article suggests that multicultural exchanges can provide future perspectives for considering PhD students in terms of international mobility as well as inter- and transcultural meetings of early career researchers (ECRs).

Keywords: transcultural approach; knowledge transmission; reflexivity; international communication; doctoral training course.

From “learning to observe” to “observing for learning” technical vocabulary in a second language (Marina HAAN)

In this paper, we have examined the ability of ESP students to observe the language of their discipline through their outer and inner worlds and to express the observation results in their mind maps. The latter being considered as promising learning tools, we have studied, through theoretical reflection and empirical research, the potential of mind maps for memory processes (memorising professional terms in a foreign language) and their efficiency for language emergence (the use of technical vocabulary in students’ discourses).

(Re)thinking language and intercultural learning during students’ mobility (Shuman JIAO)

Based on a contextualization of framed student mobility experienced by Chinese students who study French as their specialty, this contribution aims to demonstrate the need for a renewal of their representations of mobility, language and intercultural learning, and the relationship between these two factors in the training before their leaving for France. By making a critical return on an action-research carried out with 16 students at the University of Xiamen in China, we will show our conception of the double movement of decentration and refocusing through which this renewal took place, and during which reflexivity (as vector and as goal) played a decisive role. The analysis of this experience will also be an opportunity to come back to the advantages and limitations of the process and to draw lessons from them in our didactic actions around mobility to be pursued.

Keywords: mobility; language and intercultural learning; reflexivity; Chinese students; action-research.

Academic mobility and board game restitution: an experience between Japan and France (Marie-Françoise PUNGIER)

This paper relates a mobility experience between Japan and France experienced by its various co-actors. Included in a broader “research involvement”, it took the form of a goose game in 2019. Far from being the simple transposition of an academic stay in France, this game is also the subject of a pathway in the context of language learning in a Japanese university where teachers and non-specialist students do not give the same meaning to a short study stay in France.

Keywords: “travel to France”; experience of mobility; goose game; Japanese-French mobility. 


N° 34 - Transmission & vectors (2020)

A didactic comparison of online French-English lexical resources  (Laura M. HARTWELL)

Teachers and students alike consult online bilingual resources, such as dictionaries and concordancers, which transmit varying degrees and aspects of lexical information. This paper evaluates the translations of the French term évidence as it is conveyed in four frequently consulted French-English online lexical resources: Linguee, Reverso, Word Reference, and TradooIT. The English term “evidence” is then analyzed as it appears in two specialized corpora, the Scientext corpus of published science texts in English (34 million words) and the corpus of United States Supreme Court Opinions (130 million words). Specifically, an analysis of the adjectives and verbs collocated with the term “evidence” reveals contrasting visions of this vital notion to both specialized domains. This critical analysis offers insights into the linguistic characteristics of popular bilingual online resources in order to support vocabulary skills and learning by advanced learners of English as a foreign language.

Key words: bilingual resources; corpora; French; legal English; scientific English.

Transmission and change: the training of PhD students with a teaching mission (Dominique MACAIRE)

Where it exists, teacher education in higher education for PhD students in France is largely conceived from the angle of binarity, opposing top-down to bottom-up processes, disciplinary knowledge vs teaching skills linked primarily to the pedagogical register. Using the example of tasks arising from a training session for PhD students from all disciplines, all lecturers in a French university, we analyze how a fluid conception of professionalization, supported by research, would be more relevant. A four-year study, conducted with over 100 PhD students from eight doctoral schools, highlights various indicators that trigger change. The PhD students are made aware of the values at work among themselves (we work with others), but not necessarily shared (we would then be together).

Keywords: transmission; higher education; PhD students; research-based teacher training.

From the pen to the mike: exiled learners talk about love (Tepey MATOS & Jocelyne SOURISSEAU)

Neuroscience research confirms that cognition cannot be separated from affect. Aware of this reality, we set up a learning experience sensitive to both the French language and culture by proposing the writing of a love letter, then read live on the radio program Love me tender (2019 edition) of the Cave Poésie de Toulouse. From a socio-didactic perspective, we present each stage of this multicultural project, conducted among a population of exiled adults who are not language specialists. It is a transdisciplinary pedagogical experience, both action-oriented and enactive, developing around the construction of knowledge through the use of radio as a creative means of mass communication. Finally, a survey enabled us to evaluate the beneficial aspects of teaching-learning by stimulating the senses and emotions at the linguistic, pragmatic and cultural levels.

Key words: actor; task; action; sensitive approach; multicultural; radio vector; transdisciplinarity.

Virtual reality as a vector of immersion for learning (Nicolas MOLLE, Virginie PRIVAS-BRÉAUTÉ & Maud CIEKANSKI)

After defining virtual reality (VR) and the key concepts related to it, this paper will discuss the potential of immersive VR environments as a vector for learning English, drawing on the work of Dewey on experience and Varela on enaction. In particular, we will look at the potential of VR for expressivity, in relation to the concept of translanguaging. Based on a survey of MEEF 2 students, we will examine the nature of VR regarding immersion and its effects on the emotional, cognitive and physical engagement of participants and will provide insights for integrating VR into the classroom.

Key words: virtual reality; immersive environment; enaction; translanguage; embodied knowledge


N° 33 - Evaluation (2019)

An alternative conception of assessment in higher education (Clifford BAVEREL & Salomé COJEAN)

An experiment in alternative teaching skills, inspired by the principles of progressive education and constructivist theories, has been conducted on the scale of one subject and one semester, in an American history class for L1 LLCER Anglais students. Several teaching skills innovations have been implemented, transforming the assessment in a significant way and relying on a specific building process to build it. Such an experiment represents an alternative to the classic teaching of history in LLCER, given under the form of lectures, and to summative assessments that are traditionally composed of a limited number of questions focusing on very specific notions of the program. Thanks to detailed statistical analyses and a qualitative analysis referring to the rich scientific publications dealing with progressive education, it is intended to show the benefits of such an experiment as much in quantitative terms – linked with the overall average – as in qualitative terms – by stimulating certain skills such as cooperation, autonomy, creativity, participation and initiative.

Keywords: progressive education; alternative assessment; autonomy; Freinet.

Constancy of the “macabre constant” (Pierre FRATH)

Schools and universities in most countries have long been plagued by a relatively high failure rate. Many educationalists believe learning difficulties can be remedied by providing extra pedagogical care to the students in need, but although this solution may work for individual students, decades of remediation have only marginally improved the global success rate: it seems the high failure rate resists pedagogical improvements. In this text, we argue that it is largely a mechanical product of evaluation itself, a process which educationalist André Antibi had named the “macabre constant” (2003). We explore the semiotic, anthropological and social factors creating this process and offer a more efficient evaluation setup for primary and secondary schools and higher education.

Keywords: evaluation; school failure rate; macabre constant; learning setups.

Empowering L2 English students through a motivating assessment  (Éva GUERDA RODRÍGUEZ)

Hybrid settings combine face-to-face training and online activities. The purpose of this study is to better understand unskilled learners’ personal work in a hybrid setting aimed at empowering students in so-called receptive activities (i.e. listening and reading comprehension). The students’ marksheet was analysed during at least two semesters as well as answers to a questionnaire allowing us to follow the performance of thirty-one unskilled L2 English learners. Our results indicate that eleven such learners – all young women – obtained a rewarding average half-yearly score, out of which five mentioned the setting to have been beneficial to them. Our results further indicate that four of them improved their score at the following biannual comprehension test, which is consistent with their personal impressions.

Keywords: motivation; personal work; unskilled learners; hybrid setting; empowerment; learners’ assessment.

Unwrapping the layers: exploring the hidden depths in feedback forms (Madhura JOSHI & Christine SOGNO)

This article considers the evaluation of Lansad teachers from an examination of feedback questionnaires completed by Master’s level students. In the modern work orientated education system, what do students expect to achieve from a language course? Which factors emerge from student observations, preferences and aspirations as reflected in this voluntary feedback exercise? What could we learn from them? The article attempts to answer some of these questions by undertaking a qualitative analysis of a corpus of feedback forms.

Key words: teaching evaluation; feedback forms; Lansad; pedagogical practices.

DIDALEX: A platform to help the assessment and monitoring of the skills of French-speaking students in lexical spelling (Florence MAUROUX, Carole BOUDREAU & Marie-France MORIN)

Our contribution presents the DIDALEX platform, a tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of lexical spelling in the written productions of young Quebec and French writers aged six to twelve. This process of analysis allows a fine-grained understanding of the graphemic knowledge of learners in writing and its monitoring over time. At a scientific level, the aim is to document the evolution of the lexical spelling skills of young writers throughout primary school. At a didactical level, it aims at a positive assessment of their orthographic productions in order to make the most of their achievements and to propose school interventions that meet the needs identified.

Key-words: lexical spelling; positive assessment; platform; assessment tools; primary school.

Evaluating two approaches, explicit and implicit, in the learning of English grammar at secondary school (Tifenn TUAL & Rebecca STARKEY-PERRET)

This study evaluates the impact of two distinct approaches to grammar, one explicit and deductive, the other implicit and inductive, on grammatical accuracy in written productions of pupils in their third-year, secondary school English classes. The results provide evidence of the inefficiency of certain common practices using explicit learning techniques such as memorization of grammar rules and lists of irregular verbs and show the benefit of allowing learners to discover form within the context of real-life communication, especially at the A1/A2- level. The results are more nuanced from the A2 level, showing that there may be more use for explicit metalinguistic reflection as learners move up through the European Framework scales.

Key words: grammatical accuracy; presentation practice production (PPP); task-based language teaching. 


N° 32 - Learning a language: desire and resistance (2019)

Managing resistance and desire in language learning: a basic developmental and motivational process (Stephen Scott BREWER & Anne-Laure DUBRAC)

This article highlights the complex and inseparable relation between desire and resistance in foreign language learning. An exploratory study based on semi-directive interviews with undergraduate Lansad students showed that language learning is a highly subjective phenomenon. The way students learn to manage the ‘desire ↔ resistance relation’ in their L2 learning has a decisive impact on their motivational and linguistic development.

Keywords: language learning; development; resistance; desire; motivation; self; identity.

Linguistic identity and communication needs at the Foreign Legion: resistance and motivation (Héléna MANIAKIS)

Men serving in the Foreign Legion learn French at the same time as becoming soldiers during a four-month training in Castelnaudary. Apprenticeship therefore aims at communication skills that are mainly professional. Can they go beyond professional, communicational and barrack life  needs? What are the motivating or resistance factors in a military environment?

Keywords: Foreign Legion; French for military purposes; motivation; learning context.

From travel to voyage : getting into foreign language learning (Grâce RANCHON)

Resistances, as they are analyzed in this article, are the results of various dynamics of powers, created from the social level and crossing it. From foreign language as it is taught to skills that are aimed at, we will study how learning-teaching situations produce social power relationships. In this class situation, the learner suffers from it and puts in place strategies to defeat it. The analysis of a classroom situation will highlight these tensions and the answers to them from teachers and learners, in order to understand resistances et motivations as political issues which lead to a praxis and a theoretical opposition to social domination relationships. From these tensions, a new proposal for epistemological theory stands out: a largest perspective for sociodidactics.

Key-words: sociodidactics; epistemology; classroom conflicts; social dynamics; social power relationships.

On the necessity to focus more on the attitude towards French than on linguistic competence (Jésabel ROBIN)

The German-language Institut Vorschulstufe und Primarstufe at the Pädagogische Hochschule Bern (IVP) is located in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and trains future primary school teachers with a three years Bachelor program. It is compulsory for all its students to take French and therefore to train and qualify as future teachers of French as a foreign language as part of their training as future pre-school and primary school teachers. The author previously studied how some of them are reluctant to undertake their professional training in French (Robin, 2015). Her research in language and culture pedagogy adopts social anthropological approaches with a view to study the attitude of the students towards French. From mobility mapping to comprehensive interviews in self-confrontation, it analyses diverse self-narratives and reveals a wide range of individual and collective representations of and about French. It also focuses on the pivotal effect of institutional experiences such as a combination of mobility and practical training in teaching. The institutional constraints trigger tensions between institutional thinking and individual experiences but also reveal gaps (so-called “interstices institutionnels”) within the institution itself. Based on these elements she eventually suggests redesigning a few curricular aspects at IVP.

Keywords: teacher education; French as a foreign language; mobility didactics; institutional learning environment; (French notion of) représentations sociales.

Between desire and resistance: stimulation, provocation and shared accountability (Aurélie ZANNIER-WAHENGO)

By defining needs analysis as a prior step before engaging into a teaching-learning communicative approach, the didactics of French as a Foreign Language has framed the needs required in language learning: institutional needs, linguistic needs, specific needs and personal needs. One can deduce that the learners’ affect needs in the language learning process (their motivations, attitudes, desires, resistances or emotions) fall under the “personal needs” section. Educational psychology has greatly contributed to our understanding of this category of factors but their complexity and variability limit their predictability and so their exploitation. A motivation analysis among students is therefore beneficial but insufficient. Nevertheless, basic means such as class observations and the ability to listen to learners can allow teachers to detect certain affective factors. At the French Section of the University of Namibia, for the past ten years, lecturers have tried to read these desires and strategize their incorporation into the learning process as long as the academic objectives are met. Teachers endorse different positions; interpreters of envies, provocateurs of resistances and partners in learning. This paper proposes to share different actions implemented by the French Section that are, in the lecturers’ opinion, leading the teaching of French as a Foreign Language more efficiently in the Namibian context.

Key words: French as a Foreign Language (FFL); didactics in FFL; motivations and attitudes; teaching content adaptation; resistances; stimulation of desires; learning-teaching accountability.

Learning a Subject Content in German L2 : which pedagogical adjustments? (Stéphanie ROUSSEL)

In higher education, more and more courses are delivered in a foreign language. The political reasons are clear, but the impacts on learning are less so. The balance between institutional constraints and students’ learning of both academic and foreign language should entail pedagogical adjustments. In this experimental study, we tested the effect of intra- and inter-linguistic subtitles on the learning of language and content in a listening comprehension task in German. We discuss the relevance of written aids in L1 or L2 to support student’s learning of both content and language.

Key words: teaching academic content through a foreign language; German; higher education.


N° 31 - Corpora (2018)

Corpora of oral interactions: a tool for teachers’ training in the context of bi- or multilingual education (Myriam ABOU-SAMRA)

This article focuses on teacher education, and particularly on the training of CLIL teachers who work in the context of bi- or multilingual education, illustrated by the experience where a spoken corpus has been used as the primary teaching material. We show how the previously created corpus-based materials helped the teachers involved in the training to acquire better knowledge of code-switching, allowing them to take students’ first language into account in the classroom.

Keywords: teacher training; bi- and multilingual education; code-switching.

Pedagogic contribution of a bilingual parallel corpus: the case of pendant Ntemps in the French-Greek dyad (Fryni KAKOYIANNI-DOA)

This article presents a bilingual parallel corpus of texts in modern Greek and French and its various features. From this corpus were drawn and analyzed morphosyntactic information useful in the didactics of French as a foreign language on the prepositional group pendant + time and its equivalents in modern Greek.

Key-words: bilingual parallel corpus; pendant; time; French; modern Greek.

Teaching and learning of the verbs être and avoir in the light of learner and expert corpora (Hasti NOGHRECHI)

This article aims at exploring methods of teaching and learning the verbs être and avoir in the present tense in FFL (French as a foreign language) classes for A1 level learners. Having reviewed the different usages of these verbs in some French handbooks and the reference frames for this level, we focus on the most frequent errors in the oral and written productions of learners in order to better understand their needs. Finally, after exploring learner and expert corpora in both oral and written forms, concrete solutions to these difficulties will be proposed.

Keywords: learners’ corpora; experts’ corpora; to be; to have; present simple; learning and teaching; FFL.

Digital corpora in didactics of French as a Foreign Language in China (Agnès PERNET-LIU & Jia TAN)

This paper provides an update on the didactic use of digital corpora for language teaching and learning in China. It shows their assets for Chinese didactics of foreign languages and also which concerns they raise in the context of Chinese learning culture. It presents and analyses the methodological device based on digital corpora experimented with language students of French from a Beijing university. It stresses the need for a suitable guidance of those activities, elaborated through the observation of interlanguage.

Keywords: French as a foreign language; learning culture; China; Chinese digital corpora; learner guidance; interlanguage.

 A corpus of spoken French for educational purposes in French as a foreign language: the FLORALE project (Christian SURCOUF & Alain AUSONI)

Why – even at a relatively advanced level – does spoken French often raise comprehension problems for learners of French as a foreign language (FFL)? Tackling this question from an epistemological, linguistic and didactic point of view, we will show that part of the problem may originate from the standard description models found in FFL grammars, textbooks, recordings, etc. To remedy the shortcomings inherent in these traditional presentations, we created FLORALE, a corpus-based computer resource for teaching and learning spoken French. Some of FLORALE’s main features will be presented here along with possible future developments and ways of assessing its impact on teaching and learning spoken FFL.

Keywords: French as a foreign language; listening comprehension; spoken French; corpus-based computer resource; grammatical description; epistemology; written language bias.

A corpus for teaching collocations in French as a foreign language (Rui YAN, Thi Thu Hoai TRAN & Cristelle CAVALLA)

In this article, we are interested in the role played by a corpus in the teaching learning of collocations in a class of French as a foreign language. We will first explain the interest of working on these lexical elements and we will examine their link with the corpus. We will propose some ways of using corpora to teach collocations.

Keywords: corpora linguistics; collocations; academic writings; didactics of French as a foreign language.


N° 30 - From theory to practice (2018)

Language didactics: new concepts (Jean-Paul NARCY-COMBES)

This article aims to present a synthetic overview of the most recent theories concerning plurilingual language development and of their effects on the implementation of language learning environments.

Keywords: language didactics; discourse; interaction; cognition; motivation; plurilingualism; translanguaging; emergentism; language learning environments; practices.

The notions of “didactics” and “pedagogy” from the point of view of language and culture didactics: historical approach and current issues (Christian PUREN)

The definitions and descriptions of the concepts of “pedagogy” and “didactics” in relation to language-learning have evolved over the course of history, and they still differ today according to one’s conceptions of these two fields. The example used here to illustrate these two phenomena is that of pedagogy, currently considered by some as the practical side of didactics, which for its part would be “theoretical”; for others, on the contrary, more numerous among both pedagogues and didacticians, pedagogy is a discipline centred on teacher-learner relations, as opposed to a didactics of languages-cultures centred on disciplinary knowledge and know-how and which, having reached maturity, assumes internally the relationship between theory and practice. The article concludes with some lessons that can be drawn from this notional analysis, first by a call, illustrated with several examples, for terminological vigilance, because the terms we usually use end up thinking in our place.

Key words: didactics; pedagogy; language-culture; relation between theory and practice.

The professional moment: transforming didactic and pedagogic transpositions (Guillaume DEMONT)

Since the concept of “didactic transposition” has become established in subject didactics, language didactics has considered it with caution, even hostility. A dichotomy has been established between didactised knowledge (grammar, phonetics, etc.) and pedagogised social practices. The link between these two dimensions is not always easy to maintain and the question arises specifically for language teaching for professional purposes.

To help reduce this dichotomy and thus implement more integrative and unified teaching/learning, we propose the concept of “professional moment” and redefine the objective of teaching French for professional purposes as “building one’s professional moments in French”. This leads us to rethink the didactic transposition and the pedagogical transposition and to cross them with a social transposition, on the one hand, and a cognitive transposition, on the other hand.

Keywords: theory of moments; “professional moment”; French as a Professional Language; didactic transformation; pedagogical transformation; social transformation; cognitive transformation.

The pedagogical conversation: from the didactic concept to the pedagogical reception of the unexpected (Joséphine RÉMON)

We present the study of a corpus of debriefing sessions undertaken after online tutoring, in which a trainee teacher is paired with two learners of French, through a videoconference platform. We see how the tension between respecting the pedagogical contract and valorizing the learner’s initiative is a sign of instability around the didactical concept of “pedagogical conversation”, which we propose to overcome through an approach around the handling of the unexpected, in a post-dualist apprehension of the pedagogical interaction.

Keywords: didactics; pedagogy; online tutoring; adidactic; devolution; unexpected.


N° 29 - Focus on the teacher (2017)

Definition, framing and practice of pedagogical reflexion of future language teachers (Dagmar ABENDROTH-TIMMER & Ramona SCHNEIDER)

The term and the process of reflexive practice are not sufficiently defined in teacher education. For the purpose of a complex supervision regarding reflexive practice based on one theoretical concept of reflexion, we have proposed a blended learning device for prospective teachers in both France and Germany. This permitted the initialization of a professional reflexive practice. While analysing these reflexive practices, we will provide a theoretical model serving to define the act of professional reflection. Then, we will analyse the empirical data of a research project which reflects the individual participants’ processes of reflection.

The results of this analysis will be illustrated in a second model indicating the individuality, the complexity and the dynamic character of professional reflection. Both models can be useful in shaping the training of future teachers.

Key words: reflective practitioner; professional identity; blended learning.

Towards a model of teacher ethos for the 21st century (Pia ACKER & Peggy CANDAS)

Constructivist theories place the learner at the centre of the learning-teaching process, thus requiring to redefine roles, including that of teachers. Within this framework, we advocate acknowledging the complexity of the learning process, which renders success everlastingly uncertain and conditions of success highly unpredictable. Henceforth, we agree with Meirieu (2001) for whom the solution does not lie in developing new teaching procedures but rather in defining an educational ethos with principles to guide teachers’ actions. We drew upon a case study of teacher cognition and practice from Acker (2015) to draft a model of teacher ethos for the 21st century.

Keywords: complexity; learner autonomy; ethos of teachers; teacher cognition and practice; field approach.

Choice and processing of didactic resources for teaching English as a foreign language: a temperate ethic (Margaret BENTO)

From the analysis of interviews and group work sessions about resource selection by high school teachers, we show that teachers have commitment to didactical and pedagogical principles. They also make personal experiments with an ethical requirement and a personal responsibility. Teachers adopt temperate ethics and consider that there are pedagogical actions they can do and others they cannot do.

Key-words: English as a foreign language; resources; deontological ethics; professional deontology.

Digital tools and teachers’ professional identity (Pascale CATOIRE)

The following article is based on an experience conducted during a doctoral thesis which explored the transformations entailed by a digital tool within a teaching and learning environment. Thanks to data collected during observation and interviews, we report on the transformations undergone by the two teachers of the study, and we wonder about the conditions that led to the redefinition of a new professional identity. An identity shift occurred for the teachers as they were facing a new problem and they had to create new concepts which completed but also reshaped their experience.

Key words: professional identity; adaptation to change; learning; teaching; technological educational tools.

Educational support abroad  (Sophie DUFOSSÉ)

This is a feedback narrative of teachers’ professional attitude during students’ placements abroad. More precisely, we situate our paper in the field of higher education training. A practical example will be used to illustrate our work. It deals with the teaching of foreign languages to future primary school teachers in France, in the Limoges district Higher School of Education. For a long time now, placements in England have been available for future primary school teachers. The students enrolled in their masters’ first year have had the opportunity to spend three weeks in Newcastle-under-Lyme to perfect their level of English and apply the theoretical pedagogy lessons they have received. At the end of their placement time, two teachers from the Higher School of Education fly over to Staffordshire to evaluate them using the same criteria as those applied in France during what is called “accompanied practice observations”.

Key words: English as a foreign language; higher education; teacher training; assessment; foreign languages; teacher’s professional attitude.

From novice to expert teacher: representations of identity (Marie-Claire LEMARCHAND-CHAUVIN)

Teachers’ professional identity is not settled, it is a process in constant evolution (Dubar, 1996; Beckers, 2007; Rinaudo, 2004). Thus the way teachers see themselves (auto-stereotypes) and their identity evolves in the course of their career. These stereotyped representations can be an asset for the construction of their professional self but they can also be an obstacle to their progression. This study shows that the social sharing of emotions (Rimé, 2005) can both play a positive part in the construction of novice teachers’ professional identity and help expert teachers become aware of their auto-stereotypes and make them evolve.

 Key words: novice teachers; expert teachers; professional identity; auto-stereotypes; social sharing of emotions.

Teaching action and interrogative shoring at the beginning of French learning (Nabila MAARFIA)

This article examines the actions of primary school teachers of French in Algeria and focuses on the interrogative strategies that they deploy to guide their students towards meaning in a foreign language on the basis of what is common and what is singular in action and which depends, in our opinion, on several parameters: their profile, the nature of the task and the environment of the students.

Keywords: didactic interaction; interrogative strategies; guidance; teaching action; socio-cultural background.

Construction of a self-image characterized by multi-identity and contextuality (Lin XUE)

This article focuses on language teachers’ self-images constructed through their verbalizations. By following three teachers of French as a foreign language (FFL) and three teachers of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) during one semester, we will try to see, on the one hand, the subjective and unstable aspects the participating teachers construct in terms of professional identity and, on the other hand, the self-image characterized by the multi-identities which emerge from their verbalization.

Keywords: teacher cognition; self-image; verbalization; French as a foreign language; Chinese as a foreign language.


N° 28 - Representations & stereotypes (2017)

Social representations, some theoretical data and possible applications in language and culture teaching (Noëlle GROULT)The French social psychologist Serge Moscovici set out the theory of social representations in 1961, and it has been expanding ever since. At first, it was used only in social psychology research but then it got closer to other disciplines and it is now at the crossroads of many of them, such as ethnography, anthropology and linguistics. We will present the theory, its origins and some authors who inspired Moscovici. We will explain the main features of representations: their functions, their components, their creation and we will give some clues as to how to make use of the theory for language teaching; how to discover and think about stereotypes, prejudices and beliefs with teachers and students.

Key words: social representations; Serge Moscovici.

Grammar and representations: a valuable insight? (Françoise ABDEL FATTAH)

In the sociocultural and socioeducational context of Paris Sorbonne University Abu Dhabi, grammar is often perceived as a succession of rules to be assimilated in order to apply them in exercises, the central aim being gratification through marks. For this learning public, mostly Arabic, from an educational culture where rote learning is privileged, grammar is deemed indispensable and as difficult as that of Arabic. FFL teachers are facing a major challenge: to design French grammar as a tool for access to meaning, jointly and alongside vocabulary. In this perspective, a passage through the study of representations provides valuable insight.

Keywords: representation; grammar; educational culture; FFL didactics

Intercultural reflection based on images: representations in the French as a second language classroom (Valérie AMIREAULT)

This article reflects on the importance of addressing cultural representations in the teaching of languages and cultures. First, it focuses on some theoretical elements related to representations, and then presents highlights of a research project aiming to identify the cultural representations of adult learners of French as a second language in a context of linguistic and social integration in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). A total of 28 students participated in the project, which proposes a concrete didactic approach to discuss cultural representations in the language classroom. The teaching sequence targets the discovery of the students’ own representations as well as their justification and reflection through comparisons and analyses. Data analysis shows the various benefits of implementing a space for discussion of these representations, at both the intercultural and the linguistic level.

Keywords: cultural representations; intercultural learning and teaching; teaching French as a second language.

Ethnicity in the field of education/learning of French as a foreign language (Salima EL KAROUNI)

The field of French didactics is structured according to sociolinguistic marks which are linked to the immigration factor. This factor can be problematic for at least two reasons: it can be associated to representations that are stereotyped and it is no longer indicative of a skill level in the French language in the contemporary school system. By referring to migratory origins to establish teaching/didactic policies, it is difficult to conceal the pupils’ origin. This type of classification relates to social representations that are linked to ethnicity.

Keywords: social representations; immigration; teaching French; didactic categories; self-fulfilling-prophecy.

Culture as a means to better understand the other: myths and facts (Véronique LEMOINE-BRESSON & Virginie TRÉMION)

The aim of the article is to better understand the role of cultural representations in foreign language teaching and learning. In this context, three aspects have been studied. Firstly, a description of culture as a tool for understanding each other has been drawn on language teachers’ and students’ practices. Secondly, an analysis of the representation of culture, led by crossing two studies in school and university contexts, offers a unique view to better understand the place and role of cultural representations in the teaching and learning of modern languages. Lastly, a reflection is conducted on the role of co-construction of discourses in the development of the belief that teaching people’s culture would allow you to better meet them.

Key-words: culture; discourse; education; representation; the Self and the Other.

Teacher representations of a successful foreign language lesson (Slavka POGRANOVA, Béatrice BRAUCHLI & Daniel ELMIGER)

The present article describes the representations of primary and secondary teachers in Geneva (Switzerland) as regards to a successful foreign language lesson (German/ English). Giving a definition of such a lesson remains difficult because of the complexity of the issue: on the one hand there are pupils, their characteristics, their abilities and difficulties to learn, their motivation, the course books, the curricula, etc., and, on the other hand the teachers with their preferences, competences, lesson plans and their ways of dealing with a number of unpredictable events happening in the classroom. Based on the discourse of teachers (mainly experienced, currently teaching foreign languages), we propose to identify the ingredients of a lesson considered as successful and to show which principles and values are at the heart of their declared teaching practice.

Key words: successful foreign language lesson; teacher representations.

Students’ memories and beliefs on languages and their learning during their initial pre-service training (Séverine BEHRA & Dominique MACAIRE)

At the end of their initial pre-service training, students enrolled in a Master’s degree for primary school education will be teaching a foreign language even though they aren’t language specialists. This paper outlines an experimental programme during their master’s degree designed to encourage these students from different disciplinary backgrounds to reflexively think about the notions involved in teaching and learning languages, the aim being to confront them with their beliefs and reduce a number of potential obstacles in their training.

Observations and feedback help to identify the tasks that are most conducive to raising awareness of beliefs arising from the students’ individual language experiences as well as the educational context. The purpose of this paper is to analyse how certain beliefs emerge, are objectified and situated during specific tasks.

Initial results show the relationship between a restrictive conception of multilingualism, viewed as cumulative, and substantial difficulties in adopting an “inclusive” approach to languages. The students cling to an “integrative” or even “assimilative” approach to diversity, and largely dissociate language from the uses to which it may be put. They also tend to conceive of language teaching and learning as an essentially behaviourist construct, and language itself within a structuralist paradigm, even though these do not feature in their own training. This vision is at odds with current views of linguistic and cultural diversity within the 21st century classroom.

Keywords: beliefs; multilingualism; teacher education; primary-school teaching and learning.

Languages and plurilingualism in Oceania (Véronique FILLOL)

This paper questions, through sociodidactic lenses, the multilingual and postcolonial context proper to New Caledonia. Social representations of Oceanian languages will be considered here as an obstacle to understanding linguistic and cultural diversity within Caledonian schools. Regarding schools (local and French overseas territory), how is bilingual/plurilingual education perceived? Changing social representations on under-valued languages is as much a challenge as it is a formative aim.

Keywords: sociolinguistic representations; Oceanian languages; bi/multilingual teaching; sociodidactics.

Stereotypical representations in future teachers’ talk: occurrences and negotiation (Vera DELORME & Laura NICOLAS)

This paper aims at analyzing students’ interactions in a master’s course in French as a foreign language. These discussions take place in the final session of the class – subsequent to the students preparing their own lesson plans and having given their first French courses – and are based on the viewing of the video recordings of their first teaching experiences. Through an analysis of the discourse they produce while watching the videos, we found that they tend to refer to a “didactic doxa” which seems to help them explain their teaching practices. Students’ stereotypical representations about their future profession are made apparent through the way they use academic terminology or by terms implying obligation. A negotiation of these representations appears throughout the group discussion, which enables students to compare their own practice in relation to the “norm” and, in certain cases, to allow themselves to deviate from conventional representations.

Keywords: representation; teacher’s action; teacher’s thought; stimulated recall; teachers’ training.

Stereotypes and variation in teachers’ representations of foreign languages (Eva WALTERMANN)

This article aims to highlight the social representations surrounding different languages, as elicited from foreign language teachers in the canton of Geneva (Switzerland), and at underlining some obstacles that these representations may present. Through a study conducted on a sample of over 100 teachers, it offers a panorama of ideas in circulation – both in their figurative and their evaluative dimensions – about the languages in their environment. This study which unfolds in two parts – through a lexical association task and then an assessment of languages on different value scales – shows some central elements of the representations in question, and uncovers the importance of teachers’ individual biographies in the variation of these representations.

Keywords: representations; judgement; stereotypes; disciplinary knowledge; foreign languages; language teaching.


N° 27 - New ways, new voices (2016)

Music and L2 teaching of French pronunciation: thinking about creativity and pedagogical innovation (Grégory MIRAS)

In a world where language courses are increasingly subject to the imperatives of attractiveness, one might question the use of terms such as “creativity” and “innovation” in the field of pedagogy. Through a critical stance on these two concepts, we will try to determine the creative and/or innovative potential of a musical approach to pronunciation. We will see that such a learning device is more creative than innovative.

Keywords: pedagogy; music; pronunciation; creativity; innovation.

A multiple-intelligence approach to creativity in ESP courses  (Sayena MOLAIE, Laura HARTWELL & Françoise RABY)

Many learning tasks favored by modern language teaching methods are believed to boost creativity, particularly if involving novel, learner-centered, problem-solving experiences. This article reports on a pilot study, which was carried out to investigate whether there is a relationship between implementing a creative use of the theory of multiple intelligences (MIT) in an English course and performance among learners. Sixty second-year science students were randomly chosen to form one experimental group (MIT-based teaching) and one control group (coursebook-based teaching). The results showed a significant correlation between using a creative MIT-based approach and English performance as reflected in students’ continuous assessment marks and students’ performance level observed in the classroom (reported in process-folios) and the final exam.

Keywords: creativity; intelligence; theory of multiple intelligences (MIT); MIT-based activities.

Virtual worlds: innovative creation devices to develop general and language skills? (Virginie PRIVAS BRÉAUTÉ)

This article aims at examining the pedagogical value of virtual worlds, in teacher education. The multiplayer multidimensional virtual world Second Life is the device that enables us to study to what extent students in master’s degrees to become primary school teachers succeed in developing their general and linguistic competencies by calling up their creativity. This new device, for educational use, aims at enriching their traineeship so as to enter the professional world. Our study will bring to light the values of massive multiplayer online games as well as the creation of avatars from a cognitive standpoint when it comes to second language learning. The notions of « distanciation », « fragmentation » from Brecht’s dramatic theory and the concept of « spect-actor » by Augusto Boal will be our theoretical framework.

Key words: avatar; cognitive sciences; drama; English learning; serious games; teacher training; virtual worlds.

 Verbal and bodily interaction: an enactive approach to learning English (Stéphane SOULAINE)

This article aims to show how a bodily approach to learning English can both develop learners’ ability to create the rhythm of the language, and enable them to interact with peers. We will see that verbal interaction is facilitated thanks to physical interaction including the notions of space, movement and gesture.

Key words: body; enaction; interaction; movement; oral English; perception; rhythm.


N° 26 - Writing (TESOL & FFL) (2015)

Writing research and LSP: developing a writing pedagogy based on the L2 learner's contextual needs (Dacia DRESSEN-HAMMOUDA)

This paper reviews the theoretical basis for second language (L2) writing research, an approach used to analyze the types of writing found in situated contexts (professional, scientific, academic, etc.). The scientific theories and teaching practices that give rise to L2 writing research will be reviewed. It will be argued that this approach is particularly well-suited to designing course materials for teaching writing in LANSAD and LEA. An example of ESP-based course material developed for LEA will be used to illustrate this point. The LEA students are taught to write a number of specialized genres in English, which they will need to master for the workplace or for graduate-level studies.

Key words: second-language writing research; situated writing; writing pedagogy; genre analysis; languages for specific purposes; job application letter.

Wishful thinking: when scientists hope  (Laura HARTWELL)

Within the context of the wider discussion on authorial positioning and the subjectivity of research, this paper examines the presence of the attitude markers HOPE and WISH in published research articles in the sciences. It draws upon the Scientext corpus to detail and compare the linguistic and discursive qualities that bear upon the four authorial roles of writer, researcher, arguer, and evaluator. Authors both claim these motivational attitudes through the use of the personal pronoun we and the possessive adjective our, but also place agency upon the research community through such practices as extraposition, employing the pronoun one or the sentence adverb hopefully.

Key words: English for the sciences; subjectivity; verbs; pronouns; corpus; research article.

English written communication teaching in French Institutes of Technology with reference to communication in the workplace (Nicole LANCEREAU-FORSTER)

The teaching of English written communication to non-English specialist students in IUTs (French Institutes of Technology), that is in occupational teaching, can hardly be done without an increased knowledge of the working world as well as of its evolution, mainly in the field of new technologies. In this article, the written tasks allocated to technicians are studied, together with multimodal tasks using written and oral communication in a simultaneous or asynchronous way. This study aims to offer a contribution to the improvement of English teaching.

Key words: written communication; emails; tasks; technician; non-English specialist student.

The cover letter in Spanish For Specific Purposes: between “creative weaknesses”  and “innovative codifications” (Marie-Carmen TRUJILLO)

Writing a cover letter now appears to be reduced to an unavoidable exercise and a coded discourse, seemingly leaving little place for innovative and creative approaches and thus little place for personal expression. A professional experience, thirteen years in business, particularly in the field of human resources management, recruitment and training of adults, now allows me, as a teacher and researcher, to particularly focus on the teaching of Spanish for specific purposes and contextualize specific professional situations, such as the recruitment process in which the letter is one of the preferred tools. The goal is not so much to seek compliance with the norms of a standard discourse but rather to identify essential characteristics in this discursive creation of the writer-candidate, the borders between risky personal and professional identities under construction.

Key words: cover letter; Spanish For Specific Purposes; communication; culture; creation; evaluation; human resource management.

Note-taking through a shared text editor (Karine BOUCHET)

This article reports on action research taken at the Lyon Institute of Political Studies involving 22 international students, starting with the idea that a collaborative note-taking system during lectures – connecting native and non-native students through a shared text editor – would improve the reception of lectures by non-natives. The note-taking activity is analysed in terms of product (material support) and process (experience and representations). After a review of the main difficulties faced by international university students in dealing with the specifics of French lectures, we explore didactic leads that could improve the practice of note-taking through the establishment of this innovative method.

Key words: French for academic purposes; note-taking; collaborative writing; metacognition; study strategies; higher education; didactics.

Gardening writing in a workshop with international students of French and multilingual writers (Chantal DOMPMARTIN-NORMAND)

 “Linguistically and culturally diverse students”, taking French as a Foreign Language at the university in France, are invited to write in echo with texts of multilingual writers who have written in languages others than their native tongues and given testimonies on their moving between places and languages. Participants in the workshop are encouraged to revisit their own multilingual, multicultural and pluriexperiential repertoire, to develop a reflexive and metalinguistic awareness on the language being incorporated, in relation with the other elements of their repertoire.

Key words: French as a Foreign language; creative writing workshop; multilingual writers; didactics for multilingualism; metalinguistic awareness.


N° 25 - Humour (2015)

Introduction: learning out loud? (Corinne FRANÇOIS-DENÈVE)

Linking humour to teaching seems a daunting task, whatever approach one chooses. Many obstacles occur: funny, playful exercises are supposed to be too easy (and it remains to be seen whether they are truly amusing), teachers who use humour in class are suspected to be utterly demagogical creatures and, finally, humour is considered as a potential lethal weapon within academia. That might explain why research about humour and teaching is so scarce; and why researchers in humour and teaching are so often at cross purposes with each other. However, humour acts as a facilitator, and that is mostly true as far as teaching foreign languages is concerned - even though the results are often difficult to establish precisely.

Key words: humour; teaching; academic research; institution; funny exercises; teacher status.

From teaching through humour to teaching humour: towards humour production by learners of business English (Pauline TEE ANDERSON)

It can be argued that the ability to express humour should be one of the target skills of all language learners. In view of the importance given to humour in English-speaking countries, including in the workplace, the development of this ability can be seen as particularly important for learners of English, for example those who intend to work in international business. The aim of this article is to explore the implications of this approach, to present the first stages of the humour learning process and to analyse the humour production of a class of students of Languages Applied to Business and Commerce.

Key words: language teaching; English for business and commerce; applied languages; humour; humour production; cartoons.

A walk on the sunny side: humour and laughter in the language classroom (Nicole DÉCURÉ)

Humour and laughter are often considered as essential elements in a foreign language course, especially with non-specialists, as they are likely, on the one hand, to reduce anxiety related this type of learning and, on the other hand, to motivate indifferent, reluctant or struggling students. What really happens in the field? Class observations accompanied by questionnaires both on the immediate experience of the observed class and more general remarks highlight the key role played by teachers in the use of humour and the outbreak of laughter. A short comparison is also made with courses from other disciplines.

Key words: Humour; laughter; motivation; language anxiety; stress; engagement.

Press cartoons: an introduction to languages and cultures (Martine DUBOIS)

As it provides the personal outlook of a cartoonist on the here and elsewhere and is also evidence of the upheavals in our society, the press cartoon is linked to the form of humour of a culture and a language as well as to freedom of expression. Being the reflection of a specific point of view, it uses social and cultural references which are often connected to current events. However the fear of shocking and creating conflicts makes it difficult for the press cartoon to enter the FFL classroom. This article first recalls the characteristics of the press cartoon and attempts to define the place it could take up in the didactics of languages and cultures. It then suggests a plan of action to open up access to cultural codes and current events and hence favour the integration of FFL learners.

Key words: press cartoon; humour; cultural skill; integration; implicit.

The contribution of humor to learning in an international context (Rachel GERMANIER)

This study, using video recordings and non-participant observation, investigates how international students use humour spontaneously in their interactions with one another (as opposed to their interactions with their teachers). Humour is identified as intentional or not, successful or not, enabling a subsequent analysis combining linguistic ethnography and a conversation-analysis informed approach which explores the interpersonal function of spontaneous humour.

Keys words: inter-student humour; conversational humour; humour and learning; linguistic ethnography; conversation analysis; affiliative humour.

Humour and written production in a distance practice of English for specific purposes (Joséphine RÉMON)

In the context of a practice of English for specific purposes on a forum, we analyse the students’ written productions from the point of view of humour. Through this qualitative corpus study, emerges a gradation in the learners’ psycho-affective and linguistic autonomy. Indeed some students don’t use humour and are not engaged in the task, while others use humour only in the context of  specific tasks, while the last category use humour on any occasion in a creative way.

Keys words: humour; written production; distance learning; English didactics; English for specific purposes.


N° 23-24 - Affect (2014)

Les émotions au cœur du processus d’autonomisation? Are emotions at the heart of the autonomizing process? (Peggy CANDAS & Anne CHATEAU)

Logbooks have been shown to be an effective tool to help students take over responsibility in self-directed learning through critical reflection (xxx, 2010, 2012). The intricate relationships between cognition and emotion (Damasio, 1995; xxx, 2010) led us to hypothesize that traces of emotions in logbooks might help us understand how autonomy develops. The present study of logbooks, written by students in a flexible language learning system designed to promote the development of learner autonomy, seems to show that traces of emotions could enable us to identify “events” that most probably contributed to the development of learner autonomy. Possible links between emotions, students’ self-efficacy and the development of autonomy are discussed.

Keywords: autonomization; logbook; emotions; learning a foreign language

Emotions and reflexivity in language learning: the role of self-efficacy in autonomous learning situations (Anne CHATEAU, Maud CIEKANSKI, Églantine GUÉLY COSTA, Claude NORMAND, Myriam PEREIRO)

This paper focuses on the links between emotions and language learning. In order to study the possible links between emotions and the development of self-efficacy beliefs, we analyzed the reflexive discourse of learners in four different learning environments – as stated through interviews or logbooks. The study shows that emotions, even though not often taken into account in traditional teaching environments, are essential to the development of mastery experiences, the most important source of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1994). Besides, it seems that to induce learners to adopt a reflexive approach is a fruitful way to help them link mastery experiences and self-efficacy beliefs and has a positive effect on the building of their learning skills.

Keywords: emotions; self-efficacy beliefs; reflexivity; verbalization; learning to learn

Are emotions useful in self-directed language learning? A study based on training sessions reports (Églantine GUÉLY-COSTA)

We will focus on the language learner's affects in a self-directed English learning system which articulates a personal learning environment (PLE) within individual appointments in face-to-face with an adviser (methodological approach) and with native speakers (linguistic approach). These meetings result in reports written by trainers and are integrated into the PLE. We observe, among other things, comments on the emotional state of the learner in relation to his own learning activities but also some trainers' reactions to them. Based on a bilingual corpus of 700 reports of those appointments, we will seek to classify the affects reported, and then examine the relationships between empathy and educational practice in this context.

Keywords: self-directed learning; learner autonomy; emotions; affect; adviser, native language speaker

The pedagogical relationship: a source of dilemmas for language teachers (Catherine MULLER)

This article deals with socio-emotional aspects of the pedagogical relationship. It is based on the analysis of reflective discourse produced by language teachers: reflective portfolios written by online tutors and video-stimulated recall interviews with an experienced teacher. I examine two dimensions that reveal dilemmas: teachers’ scaffolding practices and learner assessment.

Key words: teacher and learner relationship; interpersonal relationship; scaffolding; face-work; teaching activity; affect; assessment.

Can pluralistic approaches develop whole-brain learning? (Rebecca DAHM)

This article intends to explore the way teaching methods based on the confrontation to unknown languages ​​(pluralistic approaches as defined by Candelier et al., 2008) can have an impact on both individual and relational factors.

The data analysis enables us to confirm that being confronted to unknown languages ​​without a purpose of learning allows students to apprehend languages differently: language anxiety can be reduced and students can be invited to review their attitudes. Because of the new class organisation related to the envisaged pluralistic approach, the teacher is also led to review his beliefs and can thus become the facilitator of self-directed learning, encouraging the emotional dynamics of the groups.

Key words: attitudes; beliefs; language anxiety; metalinguistic activities; Pluralistic Approach based upon Unkown Languages (PAUL); self-esteem; whole-brain learning

Learner motivation: Impact of shame on L2 learning and use (Dominique GALMICHE)

The present paper addresses the questions of motivation, affect and L2 learning in English classes in France. More precisely, it proposes that the largely underestimated variable of shame has its place as a valid subject for investigation into the multifaceted and complex phenomena underlying the learning and use of a second language. The article suggests that shame must be seen as a key factor impacting on L2 learners’ sense of self-worth, self-esteem, linguistic confidence and willingness to learn a second language in a significant way. It is maintained that a better understanding of this most intricate and hard-to-define psychological factor will help learners develop a sense of efficacy, a more positive self-regard, promote their willingness to participate in communicative tasks and may eventually enable them to reach an increased level of proficiency. The analysis of interviews conducted with low-proficiency learners of English in France validated what had been hypothesized.

Keywords: shame; SLA; WTC; communication competence; fear of failure; value judgment.

From anxiety to pleasure: a case study of online foreign language learning (Laura HARTWELL)

This paper examines the function of affective factors, specifically anxiety and pleasure, as manifested by Chinese and French students during an English language telecollaboration project. Students communicated about their studies, places of origin, and class projects through written, oral, and iconic means. The creation of a “community” appears to have fostered the reduction of anxiety commonly associated with foreign language oral expression.

Keywords: telecollaboration; anxiety; oral performance; English as a foreign language. 

Affective aspects as obstacles to English language acquisition in a self-study  university environment (Nicola MACRÉ)

This research explores the link between a mediated blended learning self-study environment and the conditions which may promote language acquisition in non-specialist French first year undergraduate students with an A2/B1 level in English. Working on the assumption that the quality of the mediation offered should be judged by “its capacity to integrate into pedagogical conception the learners' state of minds” (Carré, 2009: 189), this article aims at determining the way in which the internal psychological factors of motivation such as focusing, self-esteem and self-regulated learning can influence or even block second language learning. Where the results indicate language acquisition they also draw attention to the fragile nature of the complex pedagogical situation and the need to pay special attention to the teachers in charge of its integration.

Key-words: affect; Lansad; autonomy; self-esteem; self-regulated learning.

Desiring machines? A Deleuzian perspective on affect in language classes (Anne-Marie O’CONNELL)

The indivisibility of individual and collective affections within a social framework was the object of Deleuze and Guattari's philosophical analysis in Capitalism and Schizophrenia (1972 and 1980). Although their approach did not focus on language learning and teaching, it is of interest to the didactics of language in that it proposes a new naturalistic and positive definition of desire as a pure flow. The present contribution will assess its impact on language learning and classroom pedagogy along the following lines: first by examining the teacher/learner relation in connection with the authors’ concept of machinic assemblage. Secondly, by analysing how the concepts of territory and deterritorialisation can shed a new light on the language course organization. Finally, by assessing how films can help the reterritorialisation of affects and give the language class an esthetic dimension.

Keywords: affections; desire; desiring machine; assemblage; territory; state apparatus; order word; line of flight; deterritorialisation-reterritorialisation; film; language teaching and learning.

“I don’t mind”: Affective positioning and English in higher education (Alexandra REYNOLDS)

This study, conducted at  Nantes University, aimed to gather attitudes, including affective responses of French-speaking academic staff to their professional use of English. These academics who use English at work, spoke about their language learning histories, and described how they used English for research purposes. These responses were gathered as the Fioraso law (2013) was debated and passed. This law has had an impact on academics who are being encouraged to extend their use of English to teaching, and not just for specialist research purposes. How these speakers describe using L2 English professionally is key to this study. Affective responses to this institutional transitional period in France have given rise to rich qualitative data. The methodological tools used for this study were 118 pre-interview questionnaires, 17 semi-directed interviews and their associated mind maps as well as teacher diaries. How researchers relate to the use English at work has been analysed according to a framework of positioning in relation to dominant institutionalised discourses and the strength of their sense of belonging to a community of practice.

Keywords: English; positioning; affect; Fioraso law; higher education; identity; science

The role of affect in urban middle school learning environments: teachers' representations and reflexivity (Rebecca STARKEY-PERRET)

This contribution studies the affective environments of 12 English classes in 3 urban middle schools near Paris and the discourse that the teachers involved in the study construct on what has been observed. The results show that although the teachers involved all consider their students to be “difficult”, those with a high degree of reflexivity find ways to adapt their teaching styles and attitudes to their learners in order to create environments which are favourable to learning.

Key words: affects;  mass education;  approaches; reflexivity;  student-teacher rapport; representations.

Willingness to communicate: the influence of apprehension and self-perceived competence (Samiha TIGHILET)

This article reports the results of a study on the willingness to communicate (WTC) of foreign students enrolled at Toulouse III university of and its relationship with communication apprehension (CA) and self-perceived communication competence (SPCC). Data was collected by means of three questionnaires dealing with the three affective variables of this research work. Results show that the level of WTC in English among our participants is low and the three variables are, indeed, influenced by the communication patterns inside the classroom as is the case with WTC which increases during small group or pair work. Additionally, the correlation coefficients between the three variables were calculated and revealed a negative relationship between WTC and CA, and a positive relationship between WTC and SPCC.

Key words: willingness to communicate; communication apprehension; self-perceived communication competence; communication patterns.


N° 22 - Control vs. autonomy (2013)

Contrôle vs. autonomie, contrôle et autonomie: deux dynamiques à la fois antagonistes et complémentaires (Christian PUREN)

This article questions the adversarial relationship between control and autonomy and claims that these two processes stand in a complex relation which is, at the same time, antagonistic and complementary.

Key words: control; autonomy.

La fiction de classe: jeu de langage et contrôle dans le cours de langue vivante (Anne-Marie O’CONNELL)

From a task-oriented perspective, pedagogical activities and tools express some degree of control exerted by teachers when preparing their class. The word is also a synonym for hierarchy, authority, and a good command of processes and human relations. The present contribution will first show that the word is a key feature of what Ludwig Wittgenstein, in his Philosophical Investigations, names “language games”, and that it is essentially indeterminate. The second part will show that, as a result, it is possible to postulate that classroom activities and interpersonal skills are structured like a narrative, a “classroom fiction”, in which “control” is, in fact, shared between learners and teachers.

Keywords : language game ; fiction ; control ; learning theory ; task-oriented approach ; command ; narrative.

Apprenti-professeur de langues: du contrôle à l’autonomisation (Claude NORMAND & Myriam PEREIRO)

Although individual autonomy has now become a favoured form of governance in neo-liberal societies, we choose to see it still as the capacity of a social actor to analyze and act with or upon controlling forces. Bearing this in mind, we compare the recent evolution in language teaching in schools with the initial training of foreign language teachers and then make a few suggestions based on the results of our action research so that future teachers may develop the capacity to seize control.

Key words: autonomy; social actor; languages in the curriculum; initial training; taking control

Planifications professorales et initiatives d’apprenants: quelles contraintes autour de l’interaction didactique ? (Laura NICOLAS)

Even in the absence of an officially adopted institutional program, a teacher's planning process still generates several "internal" constraints. Excerpts from a corpus regarding data that has been collected in a French class for adult migrants will be discussed in order to illustrate the tension between the teacher’s planning process on the content of a certain course and his or her "preview" of an interactive course sequence. The inherent tensions in the planning will be particularly salient in his or her reception of learners' spontaneous interventions: between his or her attachment to the intended theme and his or her desire to make the group speak, the teacher is regularly caught in a “double bind”, because he or she must either disaffiliate from the state of the learner or encourage them to speak.

Key words: planning; discourse markers; student initiated statements; double bind.

L'autonomie professionnelle des enseignants dans l'enseignement supérieur français: fiction ou réalité? (Nolwena MONNIER & Nadia YASSINE-DIAB)

This paper presents the qualitative results of a national survey on Higher Education Teachers’ Professional Autonomy (TPA). We will attempt to define this autonomy according to different trends: teamwork, Teacher / Student relations and the evaluation of teaching practices. We will also discuss what could limit or, on the contrary develop Teachers’ Professional Autonomy.

Key words: autonomy; higher education; national survey, languages, professional training.  

Étude de l’influence des discours institutionnels sur le contrôle de la pluralité linguistique et culturelle: Melilla, le cas d’un multiculturalisme étouffé (Alicia FERNANDEZ GARCIA)

       This article deals with the study of Melilla, a Spanish enclave within Morocco’s territory, which presents a unique value for empirical research because it constitutes a special sociolinguistic laboratory. The coexistence of different communities on its reduced perimeter has created specific intercultural situations and linguistic relationships. Thus, on the basis of the analysis of institutional discourses and of their impacts on the linguistic plurality of the enclave, this article shows how Spanish state institutions exercise a control on its linguistic situation. State institutions favour monolingualism and try to establish a social context which assimilates the defense of Berber language and culture with nationalist claims, while condemning both of them.

Keywords: Melilla; autonomy; linguistic policies; cultural plurality.

Saved by the bell: la représentation filmique de l’enseignement des langues (Nicole DÉCURÉ)

Films and series present a picture of teaching in which teachers have (or try to have) absolute control over their classes, either to restore order or to provide a better standard of education. As to foreign language teaching, it is mostly represented by stereotypes, situations in which imitation and repetition predominate, thus reinforcing the negative image of these disciplines.

Keywords: control; representation; stereotypes; film fiction.


N° 21 - Crossovers (2013)

Ethnicity, sex/gender and social classes in textbooks for French as a Foreign Language (Fabienne BAIDER)

This article assesses discursive and visual practices as far as sexual, ethnic and class stereotypes are concerned in the most popular textbooks used in French as a Foreign Language classes in our Middle Eastern region. After a state of the art of works on sexual and ethnic relations in language textbooks, we focus on our own corpus to assess how textbooks used in our region still carry the stigma of an essentialist view of the sexes, of a Franco-French (too often Parisian “centric”) view of the French speaking world and of a certain social class, potentially alienating learners who could not feel part of this elitist world and reinforcing social dominance. Indeed, even though publishers have made great progress in fighting stereotypical roles of men and women and “white supremacy” in textbooks as far as visuals are concerned, other more subtle stereotypical reflexes are at work in discourse. The study also shows how difficult it is to choose a multiethnic approach without running the risk of alienating learners and teachers from other regions than France or Europe when this approach does not valorise linguistic and cultural practices of other francophone regions.

Keywords: French as a Foreign Language textbooks in the Middle East; intercultural studies; multi-ethnicity approach; sex, class and race; visuals; discourse analyses.

What multicultural and interdisciplinary transversalities in language and culture education? The case of the journal Synergies Europe (Fred DERVIN & Julie BYRD CLARK)

In this article, we focus on two types of transversality related to language and intercultural education research: interdisciplinarity and multilingualism. Drawing upon a critical analysis of articles published by scholars (n=56) in French, English, Spanish and Italian in a specialized international journal, we examine which languages and which domains intervene in the construction of varied educational objects: creativity, languages referred to as international, or the Common European Framework of Reference in different contexts. We are also interested in the roles of these transversalities in the articles.

Keywords: interdisciplinarity; multilingualism; language education; journal; academic discourse.

The choice of transdisciplinary modes for teaching French in Louisiana (Céline DOUCET)

This article studies the characteristics of a paradox in French language classes in Louisiana that stems from the local education authorities’ move towards transdisciplinary teaching and the focus by teachers on acquiring language skills exclusively.

Key words: didactic perspective; transversality; CLIL; non-linguistic-based subjects; classroom methods; French as a foreign language.

A transversal approach for the language classroom (Damien LE GAL)

This article demonstrates how the complexity of Foreign Language Teaching and Learning (FLTL) and the heterogeneity of its phenomena and issues call for a transversal approach.

The article recalls the hybrid nature of FLTL and its recent evolution towards a sociodiactic approach. It shows, through the importance of sociocultural issues and a vision of learners as social actors, how relevant a sociological approach is.

A psychological approach of FLTL is then developed which focuses on the “learning culture”, identity issues and the importance of social representations. Finally this paper shows how transversality is inherent to an ecological approach of the didactic environment and to methodological eclecticism.

Keywords: transversality; sociodidactics; contextualized language teaching; trans-disciplinarity.

Transversality and homology between the learning organization and the teaching-learning situation in class (Yannick IGLESIAS-PHILIPPOT)

When talking about transversality, we are referring to transversal competences, and no longer to disciplines but to training (with the terms “super competences”, “macro competences” or “transferable transversal competences”).

In language-culture didactics, this evolution amounts to shifting from a communicative approach to an action-oriented approach. In the latter, there is homology between the teaching-learning situation in class, social use and professional use.

The practical implications of this change are multiple and I will more particularly study the homology between class culture and business culture (the project, collective action, mediation, informational competence, the “learning organization”).

In order to better understand the attention given to the subject of transversal competence, I will analyze the evolution of firms with the “learning organization”, the challenge of professionalization in universities, language-culture proposals and professional didactics proposals, and will then give a few concrete examples drawn from my professional practice with Spanish for economics.

Key words: transversal competences; languages for specialists of other disciplines; action-oriented approach; learning organization.

From co-speech gesticulation to video-dance making: creative strategies for observing spontaneous gestural action dynamically (Jean-Rémi LAPAIRE)

The gestural activity that accompanies speech is rarely subject to formal investigation in language and education departments. We start by defining our theoretical framework, which integrates the semiological (Calbris, 1989, 2011), cognitive (McNeill, 1992, 2005) and enactive (Kendon, 2004; Streek, 2009) paradigms. We then present a new creative research program aimed at training advanced language students and prospective language instructors to observe the form and dynamics of co-speech gestures, while developing an understanding of how meanings are articulated and performed. 33 postgraduate students from the department of English studies at the University of Bordeaux, France, thus took part in an experiment. All were asked to make a video dance entitled Hands in Motion, using authentic co-speech gestures as their movement material. The term project involved selecting and analysing moves, then developing and filming choregraphic variations. Students found themselves cast in the roles of scholars, dancers, choreographers and film directors. Their “interpretation” of gesture was both a physical and a mental performance: a reenactment of gestural activity and an exploration of gestural meanings. The article explains how the process of “manual and bodily replay of experience” that is routinely carried out by speakers (Jousse, 1978) may be approached from a truly experiential perspective, and how participants respond to the process. We close with remarks on applying gesture research and embodied approaches to language teaching.

Keywords: gesture; embodiment; video dance; task based learning.

Reflections on multiple intelligences and language teaching (Claudine PEYRE)

A teaching languages methodology from nursery school to higher education based on Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory redefines the notion of competence and also the project approach pedagogy, a learner-centered system in which the learner can interact, thus giving him a better grasp of the world, and improves knowledge acquisition.

Highlighting the distinctive characteristics of every learner helps develop the teacher’s creativity. All the learner’s skills are valued, which is an additional success factor. The theory of multiple intelligences is a general-purpose conception of the educational act: the notion of competence is not limited to the linguistic know-how but encompasses the concept of transversality which opens the perspective of the cognitive approach proposed to the learners.

Key-words: intelligence; ability; learning profile; learning-situation; success factor.

Cross-fertilisation between English and computing: a transdisciplinarity venture in Higher education (Nadia YASSINE-DIAB & Guillaume CABANAC)

This article describes an innovative teaching experiment entitled “SMILE 2012” (an acronym in French for Exposure to Content and Learning Integrated Language) which was put into place in the Computing Department of the Institute of Technology at Toulouse III University in 2011-2012. Even if CLIL originated in the 1990s, it is very little implemented in higher education in France, at least during the first three years of university diplomas, i.e. at a Degree level. This optional teaching called Smile enabled a group of about thirty volunteer students to work in English on a series of five classes on the topic of information retrieval (one lecture and four practical courses). In this article, we want to show how and why this Smile teaching was proposed, what effects it had on the students, and also what effects it had on the general syllabus, as we finally obtained a three-year budget to expand and develop it within our department.

Keywords: CLIL; higher education; transdisciplinarity; information retrieval; English; cross-fertilisation.


N° 20 - What grammar for ESOL? (2012)

Vers une Grammaire pédagogique de l’anglais pour le LANSAD (Grégory FURMANIAK)

This paper sets out to describe the principles of a pedagogical Grammar for students of ESP. It suggests that an appropriate grammatical curriculum should be based on the following criteria: the communicative needs of the students concerned should be circumscribed, the grammatical resources for expressing these needs should be identified and the characterisation of these resources should be broad enough so as to take into account their formal, semantic, pragmatic, discourse and rhetorical functions. The aim of such a Grammar is to relate grammatical forms, whose domain is the sentence, to higher-level entities (texts), and therefore to be able to teach grammar within a communicative framework.

Keywords: grammar; ESP; LSP.

Quelle grammaire enseigner en LANSAD? (Jean-Pierre GABILAN)

Teaching English at university level to students whose main subject is not English cannot do without a scientific approach to grammar. When one decides that a language is to be part of a given curriculum, whatever the level of competence aimed at, only the best possible grammar should be taught to the students. The best grammar is one that does not tolerate inaccurate explanations. The grammatical theory born in France in the late 1970s and known as Meta-operational Grammar has the answers to the questions that students and teachers alike often ask about the most prominent features of English grammar.

Keywords: teaching of English grammar; meta-operational approach to English grammar; scientific approach to grammar; simple present vs. be+ing present.

Entrer dans la langue et dans la vie universitaire par les grammaires de construction (Vincent HUGOU)

This work presents the first results of a linguistic reflection for educational purposes to teach English for non-specialists in the context of construction grammar (Goldberg, 1995, 2006). First-year undergraduate students in English for non-specialists courses from a liberal arts university were involved in this experiment.

Keywords: English for non-specialists; first-year undergraduate students; construction grammar; blog corpus; creativity.

Attending to form in a meaning-focused programme: the integration of grammar into a task-based blended learning programme (Sophie BELAN & Jemma BUCK)

What is the place of grammar in a meaning-focused programme? This article seeks to answer that question with reference to a specific course. Among the questions explored by the team of teachers developing the programme regarding a specific focus on form were the when, the where and the how of such work. In terms of when, possibilities before, during and after the task are explored in this paper. For the where, the delivery of such a focus inside or outside the classroom, as well as within a group or individually, is discussed. The how concerns the role of the students and of the teacher. Beliefs expressed on both sides of the learning equation play a role in these decisions. A major part of this paper looks at how these decisions translate into a course programme.

Keywords: grammar; task-based language learning and teaching; blended learning; focus on form.

Corpus-informed descriptions: English verbs and their collocates in science abstracts (Laura M. HARTWELL)

This study examines verbs and their lexico-grammatical patterns in 3,381 medical and biology abstracts in English found in the corpus Scientext. The 50 most common verbs among the 542 different lexical verbs found were identified and ranked, as well as the frequency of the 1,942 occurrences of modal verb tokens, notably can and may. A closer examination of provide and play suggests that verbal patterns contain heterogeneous tenses in relation to the node.

Keywords: corpus; abstract; science; verb; collocation; patterns.

Le genre en didactique des langues-cultures: norme, variations et déplacement de la notion de correction (Véronique PERRY)

Gender awareness in language teaching/learning relies on challenging gender norms that remain mostly unquestioned in textbooks and teachers’ training in France. Then, maintaining the masculine as the generic form may be seen as ungrammatical, allowing for other ways to express gender. Consequently, correcting students implies a new form of pedagogical reflexivity in order to identify normative theoretical standpoints on gender and to trigger an open discussion with students about new language practices.

Keywords: sexism; gender awareness; teacher training; language learning/teaching research.

Nominal compounds and their collocates in scientific discourse: a corpus-based analysis and pedagogical implications (Khadoudja BELKHENCHIR)

The structure of English nominal compounds (NCs) i.e. long strings of nouns in sequence represent a real comprehension problem to non-native speakers (in our case Algerian science undergraduate learners) as these learners are sometimes unable to find out what refers to what because NCs are rare in the Algerian learners’ L1 and L2. The present article focuses on the study of NCs in scientific discourse in the field of biology. Biology discourse in journal articles is significantly characterised by the widespread use of NCs which often form collocates. The examples of English NCs in biology discourse given in this article are taken from a corpus consisting of a collection of authentic texts representative of the language of biology. This study, which brings together language learning/teaching and the use of corpus data, deals with NC frequency and length, the forms, and functions that they perform in scientific discourse together with their pedagogical implications where different activities and tasks are suggested.Keywords: nominal compounds; forms and functions; ESP; biology; concordances; collocates; activities and tasks


N° 19 - Questions of speaking and listening (2012)

Introduction (Antoine TOMA)

Partie 1 – PARLER

Quelques solutions pour enseigner le rythme et l’intonation (Nadine HERRY-BÉNIT)

Analyse d’erreurs prosodiques d’étudiants francophones apprenant l’anglais (Nadine HERRY-BÉNIT)

The contribution of the computer to improving L2 oral production. An examination of the applied and theoretical research behind the SWANS authoring programme (Anthony STENTON)

Présentation d’une séquence d’expression orale (Valérie GACON-DE CLERCQ)

Partie 2 – ÉCOUTER

Comment aider l’apprenant à améliorer sa compréhension de l’oral en langue étrangère? (Cécile POUSSARD)

Vers un entraînement à la compréhension de l’anglais oral (Linda TERRIER)

La didactisation automatisée du son (Antoine TOMA)


Joe Winston (ed.). Second Language Learning Through Drama. Practical Techniques and Applications (Emeline JOUVE)


N° 18 - L’espace en didactique des langues / The notion of space in language teaching & learning (2011)



Émergence d’un espace didactique multidimensionnel autour de la relation enseignant-apprenant (Christiane HOYBEL)

Des rangs d’oignons au salon où l’on cause: réflexions sur l’évolution de l’espace-classe (Nicole DÉCURÉ)

Gestion de l’espace et transactions didactiques dans l’action des professeurs en classe de langues (Dominique FOREST & Brigitte GRUSON)

Portraying the language-culture link through spatial representation in three US language textbooks (Laura M. HARTWELL)

Partie 2 – HORS LES MURS

Déstructuration du temps et de l’espace (Jean-Paul NARCY-COMBES)

L’espace en didactique des langues: un espace en expansion, en cours de reconfiguration? (Françoise HARAMBOURE)

The community: an ideal space for learning (Malama TSIMENIS)

Cyber espace et mémorisation (Dominique VINET)

L’atelier d’écriture: un espace pour un trio gagnant (Férida LAKHDAR-BARKA)






Appel/CFP ONELA : 19-21 octobre 2021 à Toulouse
Outils et Nouvelles Explorations de la Linguistique Appliquée à Toulouse (Lairdil)

Appels pour EDL
Voir Éditions, puis appels/CFP : L’incertitude/Uncertainty